Training Wheels

Training Wheels are Lua coroutines that will teach new players about the game while they play. They will be triggered automatically in any non-scenario single player game, and are independent of the map or tribe being played.

Triggering a Training Weel

The existing Training Wheels are listed in data/scripting/training_wheels/init.lua. Their names need to be identical with their base file name (without the .lua file extension). For blocking the execution of a Training Wheel until the player has learned a prerequisite Training Wheel, list them in the Training Wheel’s Lua table in the format example = { descname = "Example", dependencies = "prerequisite1", "prerequisite1" } },. The Training Wheel will trigger if any of its prerequisites has been completed.

All Training Wheel scripts must include scripting/training_wheels/utils/lock.lua and call the following two functions:

  • wait_for_lock(player, training_wheel_name): Call this when the script’s setup phase is done, so that the messages from multiple training wheels won’t interfere with each other.

  • player:mark_training_wheel_as_solved(training_wheel_name): Call this when the teaching points have been completed. This will prevent the training wheel from being run again when a new game starts, and it will also signal to the other training wheels that they can try to acquire the lock.

Which Training Wheels have been completed previously by the player is stored in .widelands/save/training_wheels.conf.

Designing a Training Wheel

  • Scope: Each Training Wheel should aim at teaching one concept only. This can be broadened a bit, e.g. when placing a building, the player will also need to connect a road to it.

  • Flexibility: Because Training Wheels should be designed to work with any tribe (even future ones), do not use any hard-coded building or worker names etc. Hard-coded ware names are OK if they are very basic, e.g. “log”. Everything else should be handled by using generalized attributes. Also, test with different starting conditions, maps and savegames.

  • Robustness: Expect the player not to follow the instructions. This should not cause any crashes.

  • Conciseness: Keep the texts as short as possible, users don’t like to read walls of text. Conciseness also helps with keeping the workload down for our translators.

Message Formatting

We should always follow the same formatting pattern to make it easier for the player to distinguish information from action items. We also use images to give visual references to the player.

  • Explanations: Use p for core explanations if there is no appropriate visual reference for them. Otherwise, use li_image or li_object to illustrate.

  • Actions: When explaining an action that the player needs to take, use li_image or li_object to give a visual reference. If no appropriate images are available, use li to show it as a bullet point.

  • Hints: Hints with further information are shown with li_arrow.

If you need text that’s a bit longer, split it into separate translation units. You can then concatenate them with the join_sentences function.

Example Training Wheel

A Training Wheel in a file data/scripting/training_wheels/example.lua could look like this:

include "scripting/coroutine.lua"
include "scripting/messages.lua"
include "scripting/richtext_scenarios.lua"
include "scripting/ui.lua"
include "scripting/training_wheels/utils/lock.lua"
include "scripting/training_wheels/utils/ui.lua"

-- This needs to be called outside of the coroutine, otherwise ``__file__`` would be ``nil``.
-- Using this function rather than just typing ``"example"`` will save us from typos
local training_wheel_name = training_wheel_name_from_filename(__file__)


   local interactive_player_slot = wl.Game().interactive_player
   local player = wl.Game().players[interactive_player_slot]

   wait_for_lock(player, training_wheel_name)

   -- All set. Define our messages now.

   local msg_example = {
      title = _("Example"),
      position = "topright",
      body = (
         p("This is an example with a non-modal story message box, so we can let the player do things while we show this message.") ..
         li("Dear player, please do something.") ..
         li_arrow("BTW: This is a teachy Training Wheel")
      h = 380,
      w = 260,
      modal = false


   -- Point to the starting field and show the message
   local starting_field = wl.Game().map.player_slots[interactive_player_slot].starting_field
   -- Check here whether the player completed the task

   -- Teaching is done, so mark it as solved. Note that this matches the base filename.

And the corresponding entry in init.lua:

example = {
   descname = "Example",
   dependencies = { "objectives", "logs" }